按键排序


Go语言排序的设计很精巧,在他的源代码中又发现了一个有意思的模式,可以按照字段定制排序。

源码

import (
    "fmt"
    "sort"
)

// A couple of type definitions to make the units clear.
type earthMass float64
type au float64

// A Planet defines the properties of a solar system object.
type Planet struct {
    name     string
    mass     earthMass
    distance au
}

// By is the type of a "less" function that defines the ordering of its Planet arguments.
type By func(p1, p2 *Planet) bool

// Sort is a method on the function type, By, that sorts the argument slice according to the function.
func (by By) Sort(planets []Planet) {
    ps := &planetSorter{
        planets: planets,
        by:      by, // The Sort method's receiver is the function (closure) that defines the sort order.
    }
    sort.Sort(ps)
}

// planetSorter joins a By function and a slice of Planets to be sorted.
type planetSorter struct {
    planets []Planet
    by      func(p1, p2 *Planet) bool // Closure used in the Less method.
}

// Len is part of sort.Interface.
func (s *planetSorter) Len() int {
    return len(s.planets)
}

// Swap is part of sort.Interface.
func (s *planetSorter) Swap(i, j int) {
    s.planets[i], s.planets[j] = s.planets[j], s.planets[i]
}

// Less is part of sort.Interface. It is implemented by calling the "by" closure in the sorter.
func (s *planetSorter) Less(i, j int) bool {
    return s.by(&s.planets[i], &s.planets[j])
}

var planets = []Planet{
    {"Mercury", 0.055, 0.4},
    {"Venus", 0.815, 0.7},
    {"Earth", 1.0, 1.0},
    {"Mars", 0.107, 1.5},
}

// ExampleSortKeys demonstrates a technique for sorting a struct type using programmable sort criteria.
func Example_sortKeys() {
    // Closures that order the Planet structure.
    name := func(p1, p2 *Planet) bool {
        return p1.name < p2.name
    }
    mass := func(p1, p2 *Planet) bool {
        return p1.mass < p2.mass
    }
    distance := func(p1, p2 *Planet) bool {
        return p1.distance < p2.distance
    }
    decreasingDistance := func(p1, p2 *Planet) bool {
        return !distance(p1, p2)
    }

    // Sort the planets by the various criteria.
    By(name).Sort(planets)
    fmt.Println("By name:", planets)

    By(mass).Sort(planets)
    fmt.Println("By mass:", planets)

    By(distance).Sort(planets)
    fmt.Println("By distance:", planets)

    By(decreasingDistance).Sort(planets)
    fmt.Println("By decreasing distance:", planets)

    // Output: By name: [{Earth 1 1} {Mars 0.107 1.5} {Mercury 0.055 0.4} {Venus 0.815 0.7}]
    // By mass: [{Mercury 0.055 0.4} {Mars 0.107 1.5} {Venus 0.815 0.7} {Earth 1 1}]
    // By distance: [{Mercury 0.055 0.4} {Venus 0.815 0.7} {Earth 1 1} {Mars 0.107 1.5}]
    // By decreasing distance: [{Mars 0.107 1.5} {Earth 1 1} {Venus 0.815 0.7} {Mercury 0.055 0.4}]
}

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